The Author's intention was to provide an insight in the topics linked with the Polovtsians, a nomad people that have appeared in the history of Eastern Europe in the middle of the 11th century, before the last nomadic wave, referred to as “the Mongol Invasion”. The followers of Genghis Khan have caused changes in the culture of this part of the Continent and have significantly influenced the history of Kiev Ruthenia, Hungary, Poland and annihilated the Cumans. The consequences of the invasion and changes they have caused in Central-Eastern Europe finally lost their significance as late as in the 18th century.
The spiritual heritage of the Polovtsians was marked with the old, based on totemistic and animistic beliefs, traditions of the Sayan-Altay peoples. Time passed and, under the influence or with significant participation of the Chinese Empire, it developed into a cult of the ancestors, shamanism. That legacy, reaching deep into the history of mankind, which have been influenced by neighbouring, ethnically different nations and their great monotheistic religious doctrines, from which the Polovtsians, according to their own “ethnic” character and inclinations, adapted many rituals and symbols that reflected their visions of the world.
The Donetsk Regional Museum was established by a group of passionate in 1924. Its creators were a geographer, Alexander Olshankhenko, a group of students of Technical College of Mining and persons who used to collect numismatics, minerals and other specimens related to the city and the territory of the industrial region. In 1927, the number of items gathered in the Stalino Regional Museum, including photos, documents and other related to the industrial production and the development of mining technologies, reached already 2,000.
In 2001, in Summer, I have travelled to East Ukraine for the first time. I was invited by Alexandr Kolesnik, an employee of the Regional Museum in Donetsk and the Donetsk State University, a specialist focused in particular on Middle Palaeolithic.
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